The Challenges of Students With ADHD, 自闭症 and More…

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    一个四年级的女孩经常做白日梦,上课时一直盯着窗外. It’s hard to get her attention to have her participate in class. But she’s quiet, so she can sometimes escape notice.

    另一名学生很难坐好,一接到通知就会捣乱. 有时他没有被叫就开口说话,当他被要求举手等待时,他会生气.

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    第三个学生智商很高,但在课堂上很难集中注意力.

    这三个人都患有注意力缺陷多动障碍,也就是注意力缺陷多动障碍 eight percent of children today. 他们的注意力持续时间不同,吸收信息的方式也不同. 如今,教师管理多个患有多动症的孩子并不罕见, sensory processing challenges, 自闭症或其他行为或调节障碍.

    “患有ADHD的学生在低年级时为他们的问题付出了代价, scolding and punishment, teasing from peers, and low self-esteem,” 写 HelpGuide, an independent online guide to mental health and wellness. “Meanwhile, 你, the teacher, 最后收到父母的抱怨,他们觉得自己的孩子被欺骗了, and feeling guilty because 你 can’t reach the child with ADHD.”

    It’s important if ADD or ADHD is suspected in a child, to refer him or her for a professional diagnosis. Not all restless or unfocused behavior is a sign of the attention disorder; in many cases, it’s just typical childhood energy. 也, not every child with ADD/ADHD is hyperactive; girls, for instance, more often fit the “inattentive” type of ADD, which presents itself in disorganization, procrastination, daydreaming and introverted social behavior. But many children with the disorder display behaviors like:

    • Being very easily distracted from the task at hand:
    • 低估潜能,忽视细节,粗心犯错;
    • 难以倾听、耐心等待或听从指示的;
    • Squirming, fidgeting, getting out of his or her seat;
    • 打断别人,脱口而出问题或回答,喋喋不休;
    • Resisting tasks that need concentration;
    • 忘记个人物品,忘记最后期限或承诺.

    What causes ADD/ADHD? Research shows it to be largely genetic; some parents of children diagnosed with the disorder often find out then for the first time that they have it as well. But specific causes haven’t yet been nailed down. Experts say simply that people’s brains are wired differently.

    作者 Thom Hartmann 是第一个把人分成“猎人”或“农民”的特征吗. Farmers are those who can tend to tasks over the long haul, accomplish the same tasks daily, plan ahead for outcomes and then follow that plan for weeks, months or years. Hunters were those who are better able to hyperfocus on new, interesting tasks; following a trail, for instance, turning this way and that as it changes, abandoning one path if another, better path becomes available. The farmer sees the long picture; the hunter is in the moment, alert to detail. A farmer expends energy in an even manner over time; a hunter expends it in bursts, when needed, and then rests when it isn’t.

    Great, 你 say. I am running a classroom, not a farm or a forest. 我如何在同一节课上同时教农民和猎人?

    “当老师向患有多动症的学生表达自己的能力和价值时, the child believes it,” 写 ADDitude magazine, 这是一本针对ADD/ADHD患者和专业人士的出版物. 它提供了以下策略来创建一个教室,支持不同程度的注意力能力的学生:

    • There should be clear routines and rules, 从学生一进入教室,你对他们的期望开始.
    • 将注意力缺陷多动症的学生与其他人配对,以帮助提醒他们正在进行的作业、任务和项目. They often need extra supervision to help them stay on task.
    • Be sensitive to accommodations where needed. This can be things like longer time to take tests, 也可以分部分布置作业,每个部分都有各自的截止日期. 有时,把注意力不集中的学生安排在离你和/或能够集中注意力并坚持正确方向的同学更近的地方会有帮助.
    • Offer choices; this sparks the ADHD brain and produces more focus and positive action.
    • Understand that transition is hard. Changing activities or locations can be an issue for ADHD students. Sticking to routines, and giving reminders that something will happen “in 10 minutes,” can help these students move forward.
    • Allow fidgeting, as long as it isn’t disruptive. 要重视休息或锻炼时间——身体运动可以帮助多动症学生消耗能量,然后当他们坐下来开始工作时集中精力.
    • Provide consistent, positive feedback when appropriate.
    • Stay in constant communication with parents. 家庭和学校之间的伙伴关系——甚至在一些事情上,比如始终如一地为孩子打包和拆包, 作业和笔记——帮助学生在第二天取得成功.

    在《BET9九卅娱乐在线登录官网》一书中,专家维多利亚·普罗克斯-施尔段和C. 布兰顿·希勒提醒我们注意障碍儿童的许多优点, including keen spatial intelligence, creativity, and ‘naturalist intelligence’, 写 Scholastic magazine. “All too often, 这些优势被更传统的学校环境要求所淹没:轻声说话,坐着别动. A child with ADD, 然而, 不仅可以在学校的花园中工作,还可以引导其他孩子照顾花园. 老师们认为,发现所有学生的长处需要时间, not just those with attention disorders.”

    BET9九卅娱乐在线登录官网在线专业学习计划(DominicanCAonline.com) understands this challenge. In EDUO 9413, “Classroom Strategies for Every Teacher: ADHD, 自闭症, Sensory Processing Solutions for Behavior, Attention, and Regulation,幼儿园学前班到四年级的教师关注的是如何创造一个能让注意力有障碍的学生茁壮成长的教室. Taught by Carolyn Catalano,硕士级别的职业治疗师,学员将学习:

    • The characteristics of ADHD, 自闭症, 感觉处理障碍以及如何区分它们;
    • The different types of ADHD, along with its myths and facts;
    • 自闭症儿童的基本特征及其神话和事实;
    • how classroom design affects students with these diagnoses, along with better classroom design for better attention, behavior, and regulation:
    • 在课堂上实施不同类型的感官策略;
    • how to improve behavior based on sensory clues.

    “密切关注孩子们在课堂上的行为很重要,不仅因为它会影响他们的学习——以及班里其他孩子的潜在学习能力——还因为它是了解他们社交和情感发展的窗口。,” 写 Child Mind Institute. “当孩子们在学校里失败或挣扎了很长一段时间, or acting out in frustration, without getting help, 它会导致一种功能失调的行为模式,这种模式越来越难以改变.”